Sunday, February 16, 2020
What is the difference between trafficking and smuggling - Essay Example Human smuggling involves bringing illegal aliens into a country, in addition to the illegal transportation and harboring of foreigners already in that country. On the other hand, human trafficking centers much on exploitation and is in most instances defined as sex trafficking whereby a commercial sex action gets stimulated by coercion, fraud or force or in which an individual forced to do such an action is a minor. It can also have the definition as the recruitment, transportation, harboring, obtaining and provision of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s labor via coercion, fraud or force for the intention of subjection to forced servitude, debt bondage, slavery or peonage1. Generally, human trafficking and smuggling has become one of the greatest global problems and is considered to be among the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most degrading and shameful crimes, that impacts on the lives of several individuals around the globe and robbing such individuals their dignity. The traffickers and smugglers deceive women, children and even men from all sections of the globe and coerce or force them into daily exploitative situations. Globally, trafficking is considered much worse than smuggling and the most identifiable type of human trafficking is trafficking that intends to put a victim into sexual exploitation. Most people, however, do not know that this crime takes place with the intention of child begging, forced labor, removal of body organs, and domestic servitude2. In 2005, the ILO estimates indicated that, worldwide, there exist about 2.4 million human smuggling and trafficking victims at any given instance. A recent research study on the overall trends of forced labor however would propose that the extent of the crisis is much greater. In Asia, for instance, more than 140,000 victims are forced into violent and humiliating conditions because of sexual exploitation. Additionally, one out of seven of the prostitutes in the region most probably ended up forced
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Qualitative Report - Essay Example amatic in content that extremely fascinated media so much so that role of media in celebritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives became a highly contentious issue with the privacy of the individuals as well as with the ethical proprieties of media. The recent legal separation of the royal couple had given a whole new twist to the hitherto fairy tale romance of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most renowned couples. The interview thus, was an important event that had provoked a mixed response for different people and had held a especial significance for the Princess and British Monarchy at large. Therefore, analysis of the interview is a way to understand the complexities of the lives of the celebrities and try to interpret their actions in the wider ramifications of the public-private interests. The interview is given at a time when the Princess was undergoing turbulent period in her private life and she needed to clarify her stand on a number of issues so that she could get some space to sort out her public-private life. The report would facilitate the general public and media to understand the Princess Diana as another human being, possessing feelings and sensitivities as the next person. The report would also help to analyse the compulsions of the public duties and image of the celebrities and the burden that puts on their private lives. Interview of Princess Diana by Martin Bashir on BBC1 Panorama on 20 November, 1995, has huge relevance for gathering useful data regarding the life and style of the celebrities who have significant impact on the public opinion. The interview is also an important way to gauge the extent of involvement of the individual and the impact of the circumstantial events on the person. Princess Diana had been one of the most prolific personalities of the world whose personal charisma had gone beyond the precinct of social constraints of her royal status and created an unprecedented niche amongst the masses. The analysis of the interview is primarily focused on the public private
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Effects of Enhanced CO2 on Tropical Forest Growth James P. Smith Effects of enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations on tropical forest growth: experimental studies and interactions with nutrients, light, water and temperature Abstract (150 words) Introduction (300 words) Approximately 90% of earthÃ¢â¬â¢s 652Gt terrestrial biomass carbon is locked up in forests. Tropical and subtropical forests store 340Gt carbon; or ~52%; but only make up 13% of total forested area (table 1). Achard et al (2002) estimated 1Gt/yr carbon losses, through activities such as deforestation and clearance for agriculture (Geist et al, 2002). All terrestrial plants have become exposed to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as part of global change. This has changed from 180ppm 18ka (Petit et al, 1999) to 390ppm today, by degassing from oceans and fossil C burning (Crowley et al, 2001). Increased CO2 could stimulate photosynthesis, raising plant productivity. This can have a role in storing more carbon and mitigate the atmospheric rise in CO2 concentrations (Beedlow et al, 2004). Table 1: Areal extent, carbon storage and net primary productivity of earthÃ¢â¬â¢s major biomes (from Roy et al, 2001). Figure 1 demonstrates CO2 enters plants at the source (leaf); where it becomes photoassimilated to produce carbon sugars; which are transported around the plant to carbon sinks; for different processes such as structural growth, metabolism and export. Sugars can also be stored as reserves in the form of NSCs (non-structural carbohydrates). CO2 is lost through respiration, herbivory and litter production and decomposition (Korner, 2003a). Figure 1: CO2 pools and fluxes in plants, as well as source-sink interactions (modified from Korner, 2003a). The aim of the review is to evaluate research on the effects of enhanced CO2 on tropical forest growth. This will be achieved by looking at experimental studies, as well as the effects of enhanced CO2 on the limiting factors of nutrients, light, water supply and temperature. I will be reviewing literature from 1999-2013. Experimental studies There have been few experimental studies of the effects of enhanced CO2 on plant growth in tropical forests in relatively natural conditions (ambient climate, natural soil and inter and intra-species competition). Two studies using a canopy crane in a tropical dry forest in Panama was used to assess the effects of enhanced CO2 on canopy tree leaves. Over a 40 week period Lovelock et al (1999) measured responses of leaf and branchlets of a single tree species. Photosynthesis rates increased 30% with enhanced CO2. However, no increases in biomass occurred (reproductive organs and foliage). Branchlet TNC (total non-structural carbohydrates) increased 20%, inferring localized carbon saturation. Wurth et al (1998a) found stronger TNC increases (41-61%), upon exposing canopy leaves of four tree species to enhanced CO2, in situ. Wurth et al (1998b) planted seedlings of five local species (tree, shrubs and grass) in the understorey of a closed Panamanian forest. These were grown over a 15 mo nth period, in which 50% were in ambient CO2 and 50% in elevated. All species showed significant seedling growth under elevated CO2, but decreased as understorey light levels increased, and inter-species variation was apparent. Again TNC levels increased under enhanced CO2. One experiment has studied communities of tropical trees, which have been outplanted in natural soil and subjected to elevated CO2. Lovelock et al (1998) grew groups of ten tree species at ambient and elevated CO2 in open-top chambers at the forest margin in Panama. Over six months, there was no enhancement in biomass accumulation. There were also reductions in leaf area index, increased photosynthesis rates and increased nitrogen: carbon ratios. Response was species-specific, but late-successional species were less sensitive than pioneer and midsuccessional species. Table 2: Comparison of mean TNC concentrations (% dry weight) across four studies under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. From table 2, it is clear that all four studies mentioned showed increased mean TNC concentrations when exposed to elevated CO2. Despite the increases, this does not necessarily mean TNCs from carbon sources are being transported to carbon sinks, into plant biomass for growth. They include carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, organic acids and lipids, and represents carbon reserves or stores, for future use on demand (Korner, 2003a). So, photosynthesis rates may increase under elevated CO2, producing more TNCs, but may not be used in plant growth, unless needed. Figure 2: Variation in mean concentration of TNC with height in two wet and dry seasons (from Wurth et al, 1998a). Wurth et al (1998a) also compared TNC concentrations, exposed to elevated CO2, with height from canopy height to roots, between wet and dry seasons (figure 2). They found TNC to increase in all plant compartments during the dry season. The TNC again not incorporated into structural growth, because growth was directly limited by dry conditions, and not photosynthesis. More TNC was being stored in reserves. In the wet season, TNC pools reduced, coinciding with resumed tree growth and new leaf production. They inferred TNC concentrations were controlled by moisture availability, in agreement with another study in the area (Newell et al, 2002). On the other hand, Korner and Wurth (1996) found TNC to increase significantly in both dry and wet seasons. This infers plants have a store of carbon, and can mobilize it when needed for growth. To further the understanding of increasing CO2 on tropical forest growth, more and longer-term experiments are needed. Arnone (1996) and Korner (1998) criticize these experiments, as they cannot be scaled up to actual forest size; use only small plants; have a higher than normal nutrient supply; absence of competition; and key processes; such as herbivory and effects of pathogens. CO2-nutrient interactions Nitrogen is commonly seen as the main limiting nutrient of tree CO2 responses (Finzi et al, 2006). However, although this is theoretically an unlimited resource (atmospheric), provided N fixation balances N losses through processes such as N20 losses or leaching (Korner, 2009). Litter mineralization is the predominate source of N in forests. All other nutrients are in limited supply in a given area, with older, more weathered (humid tropics) soils making these nutrients much more limiting to plant growth (Bergametti et al, 1998). Enhanced CO2 can accelerate the rate of symbiotic N fixation, as demonstrated by Tissue et al (1997). Seeds of fast-growing woody legumes from a seasonal tropical forest in Costa Rica were inoculated with N2 fixing Rhizobium bacteria and grown in greenhouses for ~70 days, exposed to ambient (35Pa) and elevated (70Pa) CO2 levels. Seedlings were watered adequately with N-free water solution. Under elevated CO2, photosynthesis rates increased by 49%, compared to those exposed to ambient CO2. As a result growth in elevated CO2 increased 36%. Figure 3 illustrates this, with total plant biomass growing 84% under elevated CO2. Greater rates of photosynthesis mean greater quantities of carbon are transported to the nodules. More carbon supplied to nodules means specific nitrogenase activity (SNA); that is N-fixing enzyme activity; is increased; more energy is available to power the fixation process. Thus a greater proportion of nitrogen is fixed by the legumes and incorporated into the plant for biomass accumulation and growth. Figure 4 shows this clearly, with increases in N content across all parts of the plant. Figures 3 4: Dry weight biomass (gDW) of whole plant, as well as different areas of the plant (left). N content (mg) of whole plant, and different sections of plant (right). (From Tissue et al, 1997). Although there is a high abundance of nitrogen, and fixing increases under CO2 levels, Pons et al (2007) inferred N-fixation is also strongly limited by phosphorus availability, and is absorbed by trees much more efficiently than N (Medina and Cuevas, 1994; Herbert and Fownes, 1995). Pons et al (2007) measured N and P concentration changes in leaves of leguminous plants, in different soil types, in a tropical forest in Guyana. From table 3, general increases in N and P led to positive accumulations of N in leaves. They inferred increases in phosphorus were the main cause for increasing N-fixation, with increasing N concentrations having negligible effect. Contrary to Tissue et al (1997)Ã¢â¬â¢s findings, Houlton et al (2008) found N fixation to be less prominent in tropical forests. Pons et al (2007) approximated 6% of total N uptake by trees in Guyana was by N-fixation, and only ~50% legumes used the symbiotic pathway. Nardoto et al (2008) found near negligible N-fixation levels in legumes in Amazonia. Thus, nitrogen is unlikely to majorly constrain C-fixation in tropical forests, but phosphorus is more likely to (Martinelli et al, 1999). Table 3: Phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in five different soil types, and their affect on N-fixation rates by N contents in leaves (Modified from Pons et al, 2007). Studies in tropical forests in Panama provided clear evidence that trees grown in close proximity to their natural habitat, under elevated CO2, within original soils and under local climatic conditions, exhibited accelerated growth rates when soils were enriched with mineral nutrients (Winter and Lovelock, 1999; Winter et al, 2001; table 4). In the absence of fertilizer there was no significant change in growth rate under elevated CO2 (Lovelock et al, 1998; Winter et al, 2000). No major changes in growth rates were found again were found by Korner and Arnone (1992) and Arnone and Korner (1995). Table 4: The effect of fertilizer/absence of fertilizer application on biomass accumulation for tropical plants under elevated CO2. Clearly the effects of elevated CO2 on have caused mixed responses from different studies. In some studies, greater photosynthesis rates led to increased carbon supply to allow accelerated N-fixation for biomass growth. Other studies highlighted the greater importance of phosphorus in regulating N-fixation and biomass accumulation. Plants grown in the absence of nutrients consistently showed minimal to no change in growth rates, opposed to increasing biomass with those that were enriched with mineral nutrients. CO2-light interactions It is known that shaded plant growth rates are limited by light and CO2. Illuminating plants will lead to accelerated growth, by forest canopy thinning or removal. As enhanced CO2 increases light use efficiency and decreases the light compensation point within the leaf, stimulation by enhanced CO2 in shaded areas can be seen to be similar to canopy thinning or illumination (Long and Drake, 1991). The effect of elevated CO2 on tropical plants grown in deep shade can be significant and can possibly exceed effects grown under horticultural conditions under full light (Korner, 2009). Wurth (1998a) exposed seedlings on the forest floor to ~700ppm CO2 under extremely low light levels (~11Ã ¼mol photons m-2s-1). Tree seedlings grew 25-44% and shrub seedlings grew 59-76%. Lovelock et al (1996) observed similar results of mycorrhizal growth of tree seedlings, although P supply may have had an influence. Thus elevated CO2 promotes expansion into shaded areas. As expressed, as most tree seedlings wait to exploit an opening in the canopy, lianas employ a different strategy. Lianas are situated in deep shade and aim to occupy maximal space, but with minimal structural investment (Korner, 2009). Elevated CO2 increases the probability of lianas reaching the upper canopy. Granados and Korner (2002) studied biomass and growth rates for three liana species; simulated in a tropical understorey environment with seed and soil from Yucatan; under high and low light levels; and under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. From figures 5-7 it is apparent that liana biomass increases at higher light levels for all three species. However, liana growth rate is much larger at lower light levels (up to +249%), opposed to higher light levels (up to +52%). These higher growth rates are at moderately elevated CO2 levels of ~420ppm. At ~700ppm, growth rates reduced or even reversed. Thus, individuals within the understorey with low light levels (under moderately elevated CO2 levels) have the potential to grow upwards towards the canopy at a faster rate than those in higher light levels. Figure 8: Comparison of biomass change and growth rates; under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations; between temperate and tropical liana species (from Korner, 2009) This consistent trend in increased growth rates under low light levels has also been confirmed for temperate liana species (figure 8). Hattenschweiler and Korner (2003) found growth rates between 64-80% under low light opposed to 23-40% under high light. These results could support reasoning for the enhanced vigour and reproduction of lianas observed in recent decades in Panama (Wright et al, 2004) and Amazonia (Phillips et al, 2002). Elevated CO2 may cause lianas to behave more aggressively, thereby inducing faster forest turnover, and reducing tree carbon storage in the long-run (Korner, 2004). Other factors have also been attributed to explain current liana growth, such as reduced rainfall (Swaine and Grace, 2007). Epiphytes are another important organism that influence tropical forest tree dynamics, and grow in tree crowns. Epiphytes derive from succulents, and may utilize CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) photosynthetic pathways, although some can use C3 pathways also (Korner, 2009). Contrary to lianas, evidence suggests epiphytes donÃ¢â¬â¢t benefit from elevated CO2 (Monterio et al, 2009). They tested the effect of doubling CO2 concentration; as well as increasing light and nutrient levels; on growth of six epiphyte species from the Neotropics. Figure 9: Relative growth rate (mgg-1d-1) of six epiphyte species under increasing CO2, light and nutrient levels for six different species. C3 pathways (V=Vriesea; C=Catopsis; O=Oncidium). CAM pathways (T=Tillandsia; B=Bulbophyllum; A=Aechmea). From Monteiro et al (2009). From figure 9; across the six species; elevated CO2 increased relative growth rates by only 6%. Although C3 species grew 60% faster than CAM, the two groups showed no significant difference in their CO2 responses. High light increased average growth rates by 21%; high nutrients by 10%. The findings contrast with those noted by Granados and Korner (2002) and Wurth et al (1998a), who found significant positive responses of lianas to elevated CO2 and deep shade, opposed to high light intensities. Thus, epiphytes will pose a lower risk to forest turnover and carbon stock losses. CO2-water interactions CO2-water interactions have two sides: the CO2-driven stomatal response; and the interactions with weather; such as drought. Under elevated CO2 conditions, plants will always absorb more CO2 per unit of water lost; regardless of stomata respond. However, experimental evidence confirms stomata may not be as sensitive to CO2 as previously thought (Korner and Wurth, 1996; Lovelock et al, 1999). The increase in atmospheric CO2 over the last century has highlighted the dynamic relationships between CO2 gain and water loss. The evidence for this is within tree rings, in the form of stable carbon isotope signals. Hietz et al (2005) observed these changes in Amazonian trees, where a change in Ã¢Ëâ3C over the past two centuries infers increased intrinsic water use efficiency. Traditionally, when water acts as a limiting factor, scientists have drawn upon an array of responses; such as stomatal closure; reduced photosynthesis and growth. However, it has been understood for decades that photosynthesis is less sensitive to reduced water potential than biomass growth. Most of the evidence is derived from non-woody plants (Korner, 2003a). Less water uptake reduces turgidity, which reduces tissue formation, eventually limiting CO2 uptake. Wurth et al (2005) completed an extensive inventory for 17 tropical tree species in both the dry and wet seasons in Panama. They found NSC pools to be largest when growth was lowest and smallest when growth reaches a maximum. This is counterintuitive to what is normally expected! It had been suggested that high NSC levels found in trees under growth limitations by environmental factors, such as drought, does not reflect source saturation by C, but a precaution strategy by which NSCs are stored in a reserve (Lewis et al, 2004a).
Friday, January 17, 2020
It was after the 1960 Rome Olympics. A well-built man stood by a river and threw a gold medal into the waters. He had been rejected entrance in an all-white gathering, he who had brought pride to his nation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The man was Muhammad Ali. He showed that no amount of worldwide recognition can be balm enough to the injustices and racism that was so prevalent during his time. The recognition that he earned at the Olympics was not ticket to equality, and he realized this instantly. He cared not for the medal, but the respect that his art and skill bring to the man, not the personality that the public knows. Muhammad Ali was not afraid to be seen with the much celebrated and controversial Malcolm X, and he fought his battles with as much confidence and gusto as he did within the ring and off it. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Dubbed as the Ã¢â¬Å"Athlete of the CenturyÃ¢â¬ , Muhammad Ali is known all over the world as one of the greatest boxers of all time. Indeed, with all bravado he dared call himself the Greatest. And he was, in many aspects not confined in the boxing ring. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Born as Cassius Clay Jr., he left behind his Ã¢â¬Å"slave nameÃ¢â¬ and took up the name Muhammad Ali to assert his individuality and faith. His action has spurred black pride, as the man continued to prove to be more than just a boxer, but more importantly a black who is not afraid to succeed and fight for his rights. He refused to be inducted in the US Army as a stance against the war. He was imprisoned and stripped off his boxing title for his refusal, but he trained even behind bars and came back to recapture the championship and the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hearts. He staged his fights in developing countries that signaled a shift from first-world supremacy to an awareness of the existence of cities such as Manila and Kuala Lumpur. Muhammad Ali has visited and reached out to Afghanistan, North Korea, Cuba, Iraq and South Africa, going where there is strife and bringing goodwill. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Even after his popularity as a professional boxer has waned, his heart of gold shone brightly as ever. He promoted understanding at a time when there was discord in the streets, he embraced difference and stood his ground and pushed with his quiet way of battling racism Ã¢â¬â not through force but through tolerance. It was through not harboring hate that he gained peace of mind and freedom. He was a living example to all the blacks who wanted to be free. He has touched the lives, minds, and spirits of peoples from all over the world, from impoverished countries, to ghettoes, to aspiring boxers. He continues to make a difference in the lives of those around him, contributing to research centers and humanitarian works, gracing Make-A-Wish-Foundation and soup kitchens. Even if his claim to fame have been his powerful fists, more lasting was the kindness that his hands have shared to countless people. Muhammad Ali was known for wit, charm, and cocky, especially his famous proclamation, Ã¢â¬Å"I am the greatestÃ¢â¬ . Ã And the world agrees.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The most immediately obvious difference between written Spanish and written English is Spanishs use of written accents, and occasionally of diereses (also known as umlauts). Both of these features are known as diacritical marks. Beginning Spanish students usually learn right away that the main use of the accent is to help with pronunciation, and specifically in telling the speaker which syllable of a word should be stressed. However, accents also have other uses, such as distinguishing between certain homonyms, parts of speech, and indicating a question. The only use of the dieresis is to assist in pronunciation. Here are the basic rules for using the written accent and the dieresis: Stress The rules for determining which syllable should be stressed are quite simple in Spanish. Accents are used to indicate exceptions to the rules. Here are the basic rules: If a word ends in a vowel, the letter s, or the letter n, the stress is on the next to last syllable.In other words without an accent, the stress is on the last syllable. Simply put, if the stress is on a syllable other than that indicated above, an accent is used to indicate where the stress is placed. Following are a few examples, with the approximate pronunciation in phonetic English. Note that a vowel may either gain or lose an accent when a word is put into plural or singular form. See the rules on pluralization for other examples. examen (egg-SAH-men)exÃ ¡menes (eggs-SAH-men-ess)muÃ ±Ã ³n (moon-YOHN)muÃ ±ones (moon-YOHN-ness)canciÃ ³n (kahn-SEEOHN)canciones (kahn-SEEOHN-ess) Distinguishing Homonyms Homonym pairs are separate words that have different meanings even though they sound alike. Here are some of the most common ones: de, of, from; dÃ © first- and third-person singular subjunctive form of dar, to give)el, the; Ã ©l, hemas, but; mÃ ¡s, moremi, my; mÃ , me;se, a reflexive and indirect object pronoun used in various ways; sÃ ©, I knowsi, if; sÃ , yessolo, only (adjective), single, alone; sÃ ³lo, only (adverb), solelyte, you (as an object); tÃ ©, teatu, your; tÃ º, you Demonstrative Pronouns Although the spelling reform of 2010 means they arent strictly necessary except to avoid confusion, accents also are traditionally used in Spanish on demonstrative pronouns to distinguish them from demonstrative adjectives. Talk about demonstrative parts of speech might sound like a mouthful, so its probably best to remember that in English were simply talking about the words this, that, these and those. In English, those words can be either adjectives or pronouns. In I like this book, this is an adjective; in I like this, this is a pronoun, since it stands for a noun. Here are the same sentences in Spanish: Me gusta este libro, I like this book. Me gusta Ã ©ste, translated as either I like this or I like this one. Note that when used as a pronoun, Ã ©ste traditionally has a written accent. In Spanish the demonstrative pronouns in the singular masculine form are Ã ©ste, Ã ©se, and aquÃ ©l, and the corresponding adjectives are este, ese, and aquel. Although distinguishing the meanings of these pronouns goes beyond the scope of this lesson, suffice it to say here that este/Ã ©ste corresponds roughly to this, while both ese/Ã ©se and aquel/aquÃ ©l can be translated as that. Items with which aquel/aquÃ ©l are used are farther from the speaker. Quiero aquel libro could be translated as I want the book thats over there. The following chart shows the various forms of the demonstrative pronouns (with the traditional accents) and adjectives, including the feminine and plural forms: Quiero este libro, I want this book. Quiero Ã ©ste, I want this one. Quiero estos libros, I want these books. Quiero Ã ©stos, I want these ones. Quiero esta camisa, I want this shirt. Quiero Ã ©sta, I want this one. Quiero estas camisas, I want these shirts. Quiero Ã ©stas, I want these ones.Quiero ese libro, I want that book. Quiero Ã ©se, I want that one. Quiero esos libros, I want those books. Quiero Ã ©sos, I want those ones. Quiero esa camisa, I want that shirt. Quiero Ã ©sa, I want that one. Quiero esas camisas, I want those shirts. Quiero Ã ©sas, I want those ones.Quiero aquel libro, I want that book over there. Quiero aquÃ ©l, I want that one over there. Quiero aquellos libros, I want those books over there. Quiero aquÃ ©llos, I want those ones over there. Quiero aquellas camisas, I want those shirts over there. Quiero aquÃ ©llas, I want those ones over there. There are also neuter variations of these pronouns (eso, esto, and aquello), and they are not accented because there are no corresponding neuter adjective forms. Interrogatives: A number of words are accented when they are used in a question (including an indirect question) or exclamation, but they arent otherwise accented. Such words are listed below: Ã ¿AdÃ ³nde? Where (to)?Ã ¿AdÃ ³nde vas? Where are you going?Ã ¿CÃ ³mo? How?Ã ¿CÃ ³mo estÃ ¡s? How are you?Ã ¿CuÃ ¡l? Ã ¿CuÃ ¡les? Which one? Which ones?Ã ¿CuÃ ¡l es mÃ ¡s caro? Which one is more expensive?Ã ¿CuÃ ¡ndo? When? Ã ¿CuÃ ¡ndo sales? When are you leaving?Ã ¿CuÃ ¡nto? Ã ¿CuÃ ¡nta? Ã ¿CuÃ ¡ntos? Ã ¿CuÃ ¡ntas? How much? How many? Ã ¿CuÃ ¡ntos pesos cuesta el libro? How many pesos does the book cost?Ã ¿DÃ ³nde? Where? Ã ¿De dÃ ³nde es usted? Where are you from?Ã ¿Por quÃ ©? Why? Ã ¿Por quÃ © vas? Why are you going?Ã ¿QuÃ ©? What? Which? Ã ¿QuÃ © libro prefieres? What book do you prefer?Ã ¿QuiÃ ©n? Ã ¿Quienes? Who? Whom? Ã ¿QuiÃ ©nes quieren mi libro? Who wants my book? Diereses: The dieresis (or umlaut) is used above the u when the u is sounded in the combinations of gÃ ¼i or gÃ ¼e. Without the umlaut, known as la diÃ ©resis or la crema in Spanish, the u would be silent, serving only to indicate that the g is pronounced as a hard g rather than similar to the j. (For example, guey with no umlaut would sound something like gay.) Among the words with umlauts are vergÃ ¼enza, shame; cigÃ ¼eÃ ±a, stork or crank; pingÃ ¼ino, penguin; and agÃ ¼ero, prediction.
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Germany as a Victim On the 16th June the German government, lead by Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, were presented with the Treaty of Versailles. They were originally given 14, and then 21 days, to agree to it. The treaty, which included some 440 Articles, was not as vindictive as Clemenceau had wanted nor as moderate as Lloyd George would have wished. It certainly fell far short of the conciliatory features of Wilsons fourteen point proposals. (Evans and Jenkins) However, in order to decipher whether the end results were destructive to Germany or not, it is necessary to asses not only the main points of the treaty (including military provisions, territory, financial provisions, war guilt and theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The most obvious term was the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France. Schleswig was also returned to Denmark after it had been annexed by Bismark. Also Eupen and Malmedy were to go to Belgium. This act is thought to be justified by the fact that much of Belgiums industry was destroyed du ring to war, whilst Germany remained relatively untouched. The Saar Basin was also to be overseen by the League of Nations, the Saar coalfield by France, for fifteen years. This amounted to 13% of German territory and 12% of the population - half of which were ethnic Germans. Lloyd George claimed that I cannot conceive any greater cause of future war than that the German people should be surrounded by small states . . . each of them containing large masses of Germans clamouring for reunion with their homeland It also took away much of their industry including 48% iron ore, 16% coal, and15% agricultural production. J.M Keynes believes that these terms were inexpedient and disasterous Anthony Wood does not agree with this point of view and states any defeated country, whether it negotiates or not, has to accept the conditions the victor demands . . . the terms which Germany imposed on Russia at Brest-Litovsk in MarchShow MoreRelatedHuman Trafficking : The United Nations Human Rights11 62 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesQuin Smith and Colin Grande Federal Republic of Germany United Nations Human Rights Council The Athenian Academy Human Trafficking Quin Smith Intro Human trafficking is one of the biggest human rights issues facing our world today. This practice makes much money for those who traffic humans, and destroys the lives of its victims. Brothels have been legal in Germany since 2002, and it is no coincidence that Germany s largest brothel is just a few miles drive from the French border. 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It was easy for Hitler and his Nazi party to blame the wealthy Jews for not offering enough money to the country, but his anti-Semitism was completely aimed towards the Jews. By the end of 1920, the Nazi party had about 3,000 members according to A TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to the HolocaustRead MoreThe Holocaust: Non-Jewish Victims884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages After Germany lost World War I, it was in a national state of humiliation. Their economy was in the drain, and they had their hands full paying for the reparations from the war. Then a man named Adolf Hitler rose to the position of Chancellor and realized his potential to inspire people to follow. Hitler promised the people of Germany a new age; an age of prosperity with the country back as a superpower in Europe. Hitler had a vision, and this vision was that not only the country be dominant inRead MoreThe Manipulative Tactics Of Hitler And Mark Anthony1414 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmanipulation. Hitler used manipulation to gain favor of citizens in Germany. Like Hitler, Mark Anthony manipulated Brutus to kill Julius Caesar on his way to the top. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s manipulation of the German people parallels that of Mark Anthony in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Julius Caesar. Manipulation is the influence cast among the victim that aims to change their views and attitudes (Schultz). The goal of the manipulator is to socially influence the victim. The manipulator knows what they are doing; however, they cannotRead MoreBrainwashing: Fact vs Fiction Essay1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Brainwashing could be explained through two opposite claims: First, by social traditions that have been victims of authoritarian regimes, and second, by political opponents responding to certain fiascos that contradict their religious and political beliefs by claiming that their citizens are victims of brainwashing or thought reform. Reasons to why brainwashing is an inaccurate phrase is because, prisoners of war tend to claim to have been brainwashed in order not to be held responsible forRead MoreThe First Anti Semitic Act Essay1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesaround the world (#1). During World War I, Adolf Hitler an anti-Semitic, moved to Germany to enlist in the army, and joined the German Workers Party later known as the Nazi Party. After WWI, GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy started to fall part, losing their army, land, money, allies and Central Powers because Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. This is when HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s voice was a sign of hope for Germany and captured societyÃ¢â¬â¢s fear. Since, Hitler blamed the Jewish people for losing WorldRead MoreWebers Theory Of Bureaucracy To The Holocaust707 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe word bureaucracy in action rather than a dictionary definition of the word. Rubenstein presented the Jews and the many others that perished in the Holocaust not only as the victim of a historical heartbreaking event but also as the victim of bureaucracy. How can they be considered victim of a bureaucracy, and not victim of totalitarian state? Since according to the definition on Merriam-Webster dictionary, the definition of totalitarian state Ã¢â¬Å"relating to centralized control by an autocratic leaderRead MoreProstitution Is Not Immoral Activity884 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGermany had for many years, like the Netherlands, tolerated prostitution with a de facto decriminalization and allowed numerous brothels to openly operate. Their country further liberalized this activity when the Berlin federal court ruled in 2000 that prostitution is not immoral activity. Thereupon, that decision led the way to the formalization of a legalized model of prostitution one year later. Germany has since completely commercialized prostitution and their country hosts corporate chainsRead MorePerpetrators Victims Bystanders The Jewish Catastrophe1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPerpetrators Victims Bystanders The Jewish Catastrophe 1933-1945 is written by Raul Hilberg. Hilberg earned a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree from Brooklyn College and his Ph.D. from Columbia University. Hilberg also was a professor at the Unive rsity of Vermont in Burlington. He is well known for actually establishing Holocaust studies. Raul Hilberg was an Austrian born citizen who came to America in 1939. He did this when he wrote and published his book Destruction of the European Jews which was met with
Tuesday, December 24, 2019
5. AdolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s ASCA Development Stage First, review what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned about the adolescent from your interviews. Then, complete Section I of the Adolescent Development Analysis Worksheet to determine the ASCA Development Stage in which you believe the teen falls. Finally, identify and write a description here of the stage in which the teen falls, then give at least two examples that support your stage choice. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned that this teen is very independant. Her family circumstances have shaped the teens decision-making strongly enough that can rely on herself. Although it is briefly thought about, the teen has decided what she plans on doing after high school. It was clear to me that this teen was once more concerned with fitting in in previous years of her life and now is focusing on relationships that are more personal. The teen has accepted her consequences in regards to lack of academic participation and is set on achieving her short-term goal of graduating. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve identified the ASCA development stage in which the teenage falls under according to Section I of the Adolescent Development Analysis Worksheet which is the Ã¢â¬Å"late adolescenceÃ¢â¬ stage. In this stage, it is said that an adolescent in the Ã¢â¬Å"late adolescenceÃ¢â¬ stage is aware of the movement towards independence that they are in, as well as their career interest, sexuality, ethics, and self-direction. I categorized the teen I worked with under Ã¢â¬Å"late adolescenceÃ¢â¬ due to the fact that she seems more concerned withShow MoreRelatedAlternative Education For High School Dropouts1698 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLearning Public Charter Schools has been identified as an alternative school that has promoted positive development in students who once considered themselves dropouts. Keywords: high school dropouts, alternative high schools, school counselor Alternative Education for High School Dropouts Dropping out of high school is a huge issue for many adolescents today. The alarming rate of dropouts without a high school diploma requires the attention and immediateRead More661 Treatment Plan Essay3705 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesinfluencing GeoffreyÃ¢â¬â¢s development (e.g., divorce, substance abuse, child neglect, homelessness, ADHD)? His parents divorce, his dadÃ¢â¬â¢s substance abuse and drinking, possible parental neglect due to mothers new job and fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s absence in the home and possible child neglect are the major influencing factors on GeoffreyÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify at least one piece of research from a peer-reviewed journal to support the factors you identify with regard to impacting child and adolescent physical, personalRead MoreGuidance and Counseling Program Needs11909 Words Ã |Ã 48 PagesPage Chapter V Summary, Conclusions and RecommendationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. ConclusionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ BibliographyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. AppendicesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... Appendix A ASCA National StandardsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦ Appendix B Permission Letter to Principal..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Appendix C Respondent Personal Data SheetÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Appendix D Survey InstrumentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Appendix E Sample Tables for PresentationRead MoreHow The Environment Affects The Development Of The Individual2423 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesHuman development perspective examines the biological, psychological and social development of individuals pertaining to behavior (Hutchison, 2015). The ecological system is a theoretical perspective that examines the individual within the environment that it lives (Garbarino, 1992). There are five subsystems to consider when examining this the individual subject within this perspective; microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem. According to Garbarino (1992) the ecological